Agents anti carie non fluorés
124. Li J, Xie X, Wang Y, Yin W, Antoun JS, Farella M, et al. Long-term remineralizing effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on early caries lesions in vivo: a systematic review. J Dent. juill 2014;42(7):769‑77.
CPP-ACP has a long-term remineralizing effect on early caries lesions in comparison with placebo, although this does not appear to be significantly different from that of fluorides. The advantage of using CPP-ACP as a supplement to fluoride-containing products is still unclear. High-quality, well-designed clinical studies in this area are still required before definitive recommendations can be made.
125. Kraivaphan P, Amornchat C, Triratana T, Mateo LR, Ellwood R, Cummins D, et al. Two-year caries clinical study of the efficacy of novel dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1,450 ppm fluoride. Caries Res. 2013;47(6):582‑90.
A 2-year double-blind randomized three-treatment controlled parallel-group clinical study compared the anti-caries efficacy of two dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound (di-calcium phosphate or calcium carbonate) and 1,450 ppm fluoride (F), as sodium monofluorophosphate, to a control dentifrice containing 1,450 ppm F, as sodium fluoride, in a silica base. The 6,000 participants were from Bangkok, Thailand and aged 6-12 years initially. They were instructed to brush twice daily, in the morning and evening, with their randomly assigned dentifrice. Three trained and calibrated dentists examined the children at baseline and after 1 and 2 years using the National Institute of Dental Research Diagnostic Procedures and Criteria. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and surfaces (DMFS) for the three study groups were very similar at baseline, with no statistically significant differences among groups. After 1 year, there were no statistically significant differences in caries increments among the three groups. After 2 years, the two groups using the dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1,450 ppm F had statistically significantly (p < 0.02) lower DMFT increments (21.0 and 17.7% reductions, respectively) and DMFS increments (16.5 and 16.5%) compared to the control dentifrice. The differences between the two groups using the new dentifrices were not statistically significant. The results of this pivotal clinical study support the conclusion that dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1,450 ppm F provide significantly greater protection against caries lesion cavitation, in a low to moderate caries risk population, than dentifrices containing 1,450 ppm F alone.
126. Zheng X, Cheng X, Wang L, Qiu W, Wang S, Zhou Y, et al. Combinatorial effects of arginine and fluoride on oral bacteria. J Dent Res. févr 2015;94(2):344‑53.
Dental caries is closely associated with the microbial disequilibrium between acidogenic/aciduric pathogens and alkali-generating commensal residents within the dental plaque. Fluoride is a widely used anticaries agent, which promotes tooth hard-tissue remineralization and suppresses bacterial activities. Recent clinical trials have shown that oral hygiene products containing both fluoride and arginine possess a greater anticaries effect compared with those containing fluoride alone, indicating synergy between fluoride and arginine in caries management. Here, we hypothesize that arginine may augment the ecological benefit of fluoride by enriching alkali-generating bacteria in the plaque biofilm and thus synergizes with fluoride in controlling dental caries. Specifically, we assessed the combinatory effects of NaF/arginine on planktonic and biofilm cultures of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis with checkerboard microdilution assays. The optimal NaF/arginine combinations were selected, and their combinatory effects on microbial composition were further examined in single-, dual-, and 3-species biofilm using bacterial species-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found that arginine synergized with fluoride in suppressing acidogenic S. mutans in both planktonic and biofilm cultures. In addition, the NaF/arginine combination synergistically reduced S. mutans but enriched S. sanguinis within the multispecies biofilms. More importantly, the optimal combination of NaF/arginine maintained a “streptococcal pressure” against the potential growth of oral anaerobe P. gingivalis within the alkalized biofilm. Taken together, we conclude that the combinatory application of fluoride and arginine has a potential synergistic effect in maintaining a healthy oral microbial equilibrium and thus represents a promising ecological approach to caries management.
127. Walsh T, Worthington H, Glenny A, Appelbe P, Marinho V, Shi X. Fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010;Issue 1:CD007868.
This review confirms the benefits of using fluoride toothpaste in preventing caries in children and adolescents when compared to placebo, but only significantly for fluoride concentrations of 1000 ppm and above. The relative caries preventive effects of fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations increase with higher fluoride concentration. The decision of what fluoride levels to use for children under 6 years should be balanced with the risk of fluorosis
128. Nordström A, Birkhed D. Preventive Effect of High-Fluoride Dentifrice (5,000 ppm) in Caries-Active Adolescents: A 2-Year Clinical Trial. Caries Res. 2010;44:323‑31
There is a lack of clinical studies comparing dentifrices with high fluoride (F) concentration. The aim was to evaluate a dentifrice containing 5,000 ppm F compared to a dentifrice containing 1,450 ppm F in caries-active adolescents. The design was a 2-year, single-blind randomized controlled trial and 211 adolescents of 279 (76%) completed the trial. The subjects were divided into two groups and were given one of the assigned F dentifrices for daily unsupervised toothbrushing: (1) Duraphat 5,000 ppm F and (2) Pepsodent Superfluor 1,450 ppm F, both as NaF. The outcome variables were caries incidence and progression of proximal and occlusal caries. The subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire to evaluate their compliance and they were divided into two subgroups: subgroup A, excellent compliance, and subgroup B, poor compliance. The latter group (28%) comprised the subjects who did not brush twice a day or did not use the dentifrice regularly. Adolescents using 5,000 ppm F toothpaste had significantly lower progression of caries compared to those using 1,450 ppm F toothpaste (A: p < 0.01, B: p < 0.001), with a prevented fraction of 40%. Subjects using 5,000 ppm F toothpaste had significantly lower caries incidence for compliance B compared to those using 1,450 ppm F toothpaste (p < 0.05); the prevented fraction was 42%. This may indicate that 5,000 ppm F toothpaste has a greater impact on individuals who do not use toothpaste regularly or do not brush twice a day. Thus, 5,000 ppm F toothpaste appears to be an important vehicle for caries prevention and treatment of adolescents with a high caries risk.
129. Ekstrand KR, Poulsen JE, Hede B, Twetman S, Qvist V, Ellwood RP. A randomized clinical trial of the anti-caries efficacy of 5,000 compared to 1,450 ppm fluoridated toothpaste on root caries lesions in elderly disabled nursing home residents. Caries Res. 2013;47(5):391‑8
Root caries is prevalent in elderly disabled nursing home residents in Denmark. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of tooth brushing with 5,000 versus 1,450 ppm of fluoridated toothpaste (F-toothpaste) for controlling root caries in nursing home residents. The duration of the study was 8 months. Elderly disabled residents (n = 176) in 6 nursing homes in the Copenhagen area consented to take part in the study. They were randomly assigned to use one of the two toothpastes. Both groups had their teeth brushed twice a day by the nursing staff. A total of 125 residents completed the study. Baseline and follow-up clinical examinations were performed by one calibrated examiner. Texture, contour, location and colour of root caries lesions were used to evaluate lesion activity. No differences (p values >0.16) were noted in the baseline examination with regards to age, mouth dryness, wearing of partial or full dentures in one of the jaws, occurrence of plaque and active (2.61 vs. 2.67; SD, 1.7 vs.1.8) or arrested lesions (0.62 vs. 0.63; SD, 1.7 vs. 1.7) between the 5,000 and the 1,450 ppm fluoride groups, respectively. Mean numbers of active root caries lesions at the follow-up examination were 1.05 (2.76) versus 2.55 (1.91) and mean numbers of arrested caries lesions were 2.13 (1.68) versus 0.61 (1.76) in the 5,000 and the 1,450 ppm fluoride groups, respectively (p < 0.001). To conclude, 5,000 ppm F-toothpaste is significantly more effective for controlling root caries lesion progression and promoting remineralization compared to 1,450 ppm F-toothpaste.
130. Santos APP, Oliveira BH, Nadanovsky P. Effects of low and standard fluoride toothpastes on caries and fluorosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. Caries Res. 2013;47(5):382‑90.
Although the anti-caries effects of standard fluoride (F) toothpastes are well established, their use by preschoolers (2- to 5-year-olds) has given rise to concerns regarding the development of dental fluorosis. Thus, a widespread support of low F toothpastes has been observed. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low (< 600 ppm) and standard (1,000-1,500 ppm) F toothpastes on the prevention of caries in the primary dentition and aesthetically objectionable (moderate to severe) fluorosis in the permanent dentition. A systematic review of clinical trials and meta-analyses were carried out. Two examiners independently screened 1,932 records and read 159 potentially eligible full-text articles. Data regarding characteristics of participants, interventions, outcomes, length of follow-up and potential of bias were independently extracted by two examiners and disagreements were solved by consensus after consulting a third examiner. In order to assess the effects of low and standard F toothpastes on the proportion of children developing caries and fluorosis, pooled relative risks (RR) and associated 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a fixed and a random-effects model, respectively. Five clinical trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Low F toothpastes significantly increased the risk of caries in primary teeth [RR = 1.13 (1.07-1.20); 4,634 participants in three studies] and did not significantly decrease the risk of aesthetically objectionable fluorosis in the upper anterior permanent teeth [RR = 0.32 (0.03-2.97); 1,968 participants in two studies]. There is no evidence to support the use of low F toothpastes by preschoolers regarding caries and fluorosis prevention.
131. Wong M, Glenny A, Tsang B, Lo E, Worthington H, Marinho V. Topical fluoride as a cause of dental fluorosis in children (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 2010;Issue 1(CD007693).
There should be a balanced consideration between the benefits of topical fluorides in caries prevention and the risk of the development of fluorosis. Most of the available evidence focuses on mild fluorosis. There is weak unreliable evidence that starting the use of fluoride toothpaste in children under 12 months of age may be associated with an increased risk of fluorosis. The evidence for its use between the age of 12 and 24 months is equivocal. If the risk of fluorosis is of concern, the fluoride level of toothpaste for young children (under 6 years of age) is recommended to be lower than 1000 parts per million (ppm).More evidence with low risk of bias is needed. Future trials assessing the effectiveness of different types of topical fluorides (including toothpastes, gels, varnishes and mouthrinses) or different concentrations or both should ensure that they include an adequate follow-up period in order to collect data on potential fluorosis. As it is unethical to propose RCTs to assess fluorosis itself, it is acknowledged that further observational studies will be undertaken in this area. However, attention needs to be given to the choice of study design, bearing in mind that prospective, controlled studies will be less susceptible to bias than retrospective and/or uncontrolled studies.
132. Wierichs RJ, Meyer-Lueckel H. Systematic Review on Noninvasive Treatment of Root Caries Lesions. J Dent Res. 1 févr 2015;94(2):261‑71.
The present systematic review critically summarizes results of clinical studies investigating chemical agents to reduce initiation or inactivation of root caries lesions (RCLs). Outcomes were DMFRS/DFRS (decayed, missing, filled root surfaces), surface texture (hard/soft), and/or RCI (root caries index). Three electronic databases were screened for studies from 1947 to 2014. Cross-referencing was used to further identify articles. Article selection and data abstraction were done in duplicate. Languages were restricted to English and German. Mean differences (MD) were calculated for changes in DMFRS/DFRS. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated for changes in surface texture and RCI in a random effects model. Thirty-four articles with 1 or more agents were included; they reported 30 studies with 10,136 patients who were 20 to 101 y old; and they analyzed 28 chemical agents (alone or in combination). Eleven studies investigated dentifrices, 10 rinses, 8 varnishes, 3 solutions, 3 gels, and 2 ozone applications. Meta-analyses revealed that dentifrices containing 5,000 ppm F(-) (RR = 0.49; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.42, 0.57; high level of evidence) or 1.5% arginine plus 1,450 ppm F(-) (RR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.64, 0.98; very low level) are more effective in inactivating RCLs than dentifrices containing 1,100 to 1,450 ppm F(-). Self-applied AmF/SnF2-containing dentifrice and rinse decreased the initiation of RCLs when compared with NaF products (standardized MD = 0.15; 95% CI = -0.22, 0.52; low level). Patients rinsing with a mouth rinse containing 225 to 900 ppm F(-) revealed a significantly reduced DMFRS/DFRS (MD = -0.18; 95% CI = -0.35, -0.01; low level) when compared with a placebo rinse. Significantly reduced RCI was found for CHX (MD = -0.67; 95% CI = -1.01, -0.32; very low level) as well as SDF (MD = -0.33; 95% CI = -0.39, -0.28; very low level) when compared with placebo varnish. Regular use of dentifrices containing 5,000 ppm F(-) and quarterly professionally applied CHX or SDF varnishes seem to be efficacious to decrease progression and initiation of root caries, respectively. However, this conclusion is based on only very few well-conducted randomized controlled trials.
133. Curnow MMT, Pine CM, Burnside G, Nicholson JA, Chesters RK, Huntington E. A randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of supervised toothbrushing in high-caries-risk children. Caries Res. août 2002;36(4):294‑300
Scottish children have one of the highest levels of caries experience in Europe. Only 33% of 5-year-old children in Dundee who developed caries in their first permanent molars by 7 brushed their teeth twice a day. High-caries-risk children should benefit if they brush more often with fluoridated toothpaste. The aim of this clinical trial was to determine the reduction in 2-year caries increment that can be achieved by daily supervised toothbrushing on school-days with a toothpaste containing 1,000 ppm fluoride (as sodium monofluorophosphate) and 0.13% calcium glycerophosphate, combined with recommended daily home use, compared to a control group involving no intervention other than 6-monthly clinical examinations. Five hundred and thirty-four children, mean age 5.3, in schools in deprived areas of Tayside were recruited. Each school had two parallel classes, one randomly selected to be the brushing class and the other, the control. Local mothers were trained as toothbrushing supervisors. Children brushed on school-days and received home supplies. A single examiner undertook 6-monthly examinations recording plaque, caries (D(1) level), and used FOTI to supplement the visual caries examination. For children in the brushing classes, the 2-year mean caries increment on first permanent molars was 0.81 at D(1) and 0.21 at D(3) compared to 1.19 and 0.48 for children in the control classes (significant reductions of 32% at D(1) and 56% at D(3)). In conclusion, high-caries-risk children have been shown to have significantly less caries after participating in a supervised toothbrushing programme with a fluoridated toothpaste.
134. Marinho VCC, Higgins JPT, Logan S, Sheiham A. Fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev Online. 2003;(3):CD002284
Thirty-six studies were included. For the 34 that contributed data for meta-analysis (involving 14,600 children) the D(M)FS pooled PF was 26% (95% confidence interval (CI), 23% to 30%; p < 0.0001). Heterogeneity was not substantial, but confirmed statistically (p = 0.008). No significant association between estimates of D(M)FS prevented fractions and baseline caries severity, background exposure to fluorides, rinsing frequency and fluoride concentration was found in metaregression analyses. A funnel plot of the 34 studies indicated no relationship between prevented fraction and study precision. There is little information concerning possible adverse effects or acceptability of treatment in the included trials.
This review suggests that the supervised regular use of fluoride mouthrinse at two main strengths and rinsing frequencies is associated with a clear reduction in caries increment in children. In populations with caries increment of 0.25 D(M)FS per year, 16 children will need to use a fluoride mouthrinse (rather than a non-fluoride rinse) to avoid one D(M)FS; in populations with a caries increment of 2.14 D(M)FS per year, 2 children will need to rinse to avoid one D(M)FS. There is a need for complete reporting of side effects and acceptability data in fluoride mouthrinse trials.
135. Marinho VCC, Higgins JPT, Sheiham A, Logan S. Combinations of topical fluoride (toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, varnishes) versus single topical fluoride for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD002781.
Eleven of the 12 included studies contributed data for the meta-analyses. For the nine trials that provided data for the main meta-analysis on the effect of fluoride mouthrinses, gels or varnishes used in combination with toothpaste (involving 4026 children) the D(M)FS pooled PF was 10% (95% CI, 2% to 17%; p = 0.01) in favour of the combined regimens. Heterogeneity was not substantial in these results (I square = 32%). The separate meta-analyses of fluoride gel or mouthrinse combined with toothpaste versus toothpaste alone favour the combined regimens, but differences were not statistically significant; the significant difference in favour of the combined use of fluoride varnish and toothpaste accrues from a very small trial and appears likely to be a spurious result. Not all other combinations of possible practical value were tested in the included studies. The only other statistically significant result was in favour of the combined use of fluoride gel and mouthrinse in comparison to gel alone (pooled DMFS PF 23%; 95% CI, 4% to 43%; p = 0.02), based on two trials. No other combinations of TFT were consistently superior to a single TFT.
Topical fluorides (mouthrinses, gels, or varnishes) used in addition to fluoride toothpaste achieve a modest reduction in caries compared to toothpaste used alone. No conclusions about any adverse effects could be reached, because data were scarcely reported in the trials.
136. Benson PE, Parkin N, Dyer F, Millett DT, Furness S, Germain P. Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;12:CD003809.
For the 2013 update of this review, three changes were made to the protocol regarding inclusion criteria. Fourteen studies included in the previous version of the review were excluded from this update for the following reasons: five previously included studies were quasi-randomised, a further five were split-mouth studies, three measured outcomes on extracted teeth only and in one, the same fluoride intervention was used in each intervention group of the study.Three studies and 458 participants were included in this updated review. One study was assessed at low risk of bias for all domains, in one study the risk of bias was unclear and in the remaining study, the risk of bias was high.One placebo-controlled study of fluoride varnish applied every six weeks (253 participants, low risk of bias), provided moderate-quality evidence of an almost 70% reduction in DWLs (risk ratio (RR) 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.44, P value < 0.001). This finding is considered to provide moderate-quality evidence for this intervention because it has not yet been replicated by further studies in orthodontic participants.One study compared two different formulations of fluoride toothpaste and mouthrinse prescribed for participants undergoing orthodontic treatment (97 participants, unclear risk of bias) and found no difference between an amine fluoride and stannous fluoride toothpaste/mouthrinse combination and a sodium fluoride toothpaste/mouthrinse combination for the outcomes of white spot index, visible plaque index and gingival bleeding index.One small study (37 participants) compared the use of an intraoral fluoride-releasing glass bead device attached to the brace versus a daily fluoride mouthrinse. The study was assessed at high risk of bias because a substantial number of participants were lost to follow-up, and compliance with use of the mouthrinse was not measured.Neither secondary outcomes of this review nor adverse effects of interventions were reported in any of the included studies.
This review found some moderate evidence that fluoride varnish applied every six weeks at the time of orthodontic review during treatment is effective, but this finding is based on a single study. Further adequately powered, double-blind, randomised controlled trials are required to determine the best means of preventing DWLs in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment and the most accurate means of assessing compliance with treatment and possible adverse effects. Future studies should follow up participants beyond the end of orthodontic treatment to determine the effect of DWLs on participant satisfaction with treatment.
137. Marinho VC, Higgins JP, Logan S, Sheiham A. Fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev Online. 2002;(2):CD002280.
Twenty-five studies were included, involving 7747 children. For the 23 that contributed data for meta-analysis, the D(M)FS pooled prevented fraction estimate was 28% (95% CI, 19% to 37%; p < 0.0001). There was clear heterogeneity, confirmed statistically (p < 0.0001). The effect of fluoride gel varied according to type of control group used, with D(M)FS PF on average being 19% (95% CI, 5% to 33%; p < 0.009) higher in non-placebo controlled trials. A funnel plot of the 23 studies indicated a relationship between prevented fraction and study precision. Only two trials reported on adverse events.
There is clear evidence of a caries-inhibiting effect of fluoride gel. The best estimate of the magnitude of this effect, based on the 14 placebo-controlled trials, is a 21% reduction (95% CI, 14 to 28%) in D(M)FS. This corresponds to an NNT of 2 (95% CI, 1 to 3) to avoid 1 D(M)FS in a population with a caries increment of 2.2 D(M)FS/year, or an NNT of 24 (95% CI, 18 to 36) based on an increment of 0.2 D(M)FS/year. There is little information concerning deciduous dentition, on adverse effects or on acceptability of treatment. Future trials should include assessment of potential adverse effects.
138. Marinho VCC, Worthington HV, Walsh T, Clarkson JE. Fluoride varnishes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;7:CD002279.
To determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride varnishes in preventing dental caries in children and adolescents, and to examine factors potentially modifying their effect. Twenty-two trials with 12,455 participants randomised (9595 used in analyses) were included. For the 13 that contributed data for the permanent tooth surfaces meta-analysis, the pooled D(M)FS prevented fraction estimate comparing fluoride varnish with placebo or no treatment was 43% (95% confidence interval (CI) 30% to 57%; P < 0.0001). There was substantial heterogeneity, confirmed statistically (P < 0.0001; I(2) = 75%), however this body of evidence was assessed as of moderate quality. The pooled d(e/m)fs prevented fraction estimate was 37% (95% CI 24% to 51%; P < 0.0001) for the 10 trials that contributed data for the primary tooth surfaces meta-analysis, also with some heterogeneity (P = 0.009; I(2) = 59%). Once again this body of evidence was assessed as of moderate quality. No significant association between estimates of D(M)FS or d(e/m)fs prevented fractions and the pre-specified factors of baseline caries severity, background exposure to fluorides, application features such as prior prophylaxis, concentration of fluoride, frequency of application were found. There was also no significant association between estimates of D(M)FS or d(e/m)fs prevented fractions and the post hoc factors: whether a placebo or no treatment control was used, length of follow-up, or whether individual or cluster randomisation was used, in the meta-regression models. A funnel plot of the trials in the main meta-analyses indicated no clear relationship between prevented fraction and study precision. In both methods, power is limited when few trials are included. There was little information concerning possible adverse effects or acceptability of treatment.
The conclusions of this updated review remain the same as those when it was first published. The review suggests a substantial caries-inhibiting effect of fluoride varnish in both permanent and primary teeth, however the quality of the evidence was assessed as moderate, as it included mainly high risk of bias studies, with considerable heterogeneity.
139. Stecksén-Blicks C, Renfors G, Oscarson N, Bergstrand F, Twetman S. Caries-Preventive Effectiveness of a Fluoride Varnish: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Adolescents with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances. Caries Res. 2007;41:455‑9
The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of topical fluoride varnish applications on white spot lesion (WSL) formation in adolescents during treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. The study design was a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial with two parallel arms. The subjects were 273 consecutive 12- to 15-year-old children referred for maxillary treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. The patients were randomly assigned to a test or a control group with topical applications of either a fluoride varnish (Fluor Protector) or a placebo varnish every 6th week during the treatment period. The outcome measures at debonding were incidence and progression of WSL on the upper incisors, cuspids and premolars as scored from digital photographs by 2 independent examiners. The attrition rate was 5%. The mean number of varnish applications was 10 (range 4-20) in both groups. The incidence of WSL during the treatment with fixed appliances was 7.4% in the fluoride varnish compared to 25.3% placebo group (p < 0.001). The mean progression score was significantly lower in the fluoride varnish group than in the placebo group, 0.8 +/- 2.0 vs. 2.6 +/- 2.8 (p < 0.001). The absolute risk reduction was 18% and the number needed to treat was calculated to 5.5. The results from the present study strongly suggest that regular topical fluoride varnish applications during treatment with fixed appliances may reduce the development of WSL adjacent to the bracket base. Application of fluoride varnish should be advocated as a routine measure in orthodontic practice.
140. Marinho VCC. Cochrane reviews of randomized trials of fluoride therapies for preventing dental caries. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent Off J Eur Acad Paediatr Dent. sept 2009;10(3):183‑91.
The benefits of topical fluorides are firmly established based on a sizeable body of evidence from randomized controlled trials. The size of the reductions in caries increment in both the permanent and the primary dentitions emphasizes the importance of including topical fluoride delivered through toothpastes, rinses, gels or varnishes in any caries preventive program. However, trials to discern potential adverse effects are required, and data on acceptability. Better quality research is needed to reach clearer conclusions on the effects of slow release fluoride devices, milk fluoridation, sealants in comparison with fluoride varnishes, and of different modes of delivering fluoride to orthodontic patients.
141. Ijaz S, Croucher RE, Marinho VCC. Systematic reviews of topical fluorides for dental caries: a review of reporting practice. Caries Res. 2010;44(6):579‑92.
This paper aims to assess systematic reviews on the caries-preventive effect of topical fluorides, identifying key content and reporting quality issues to be considered by researchers planning a review in this area. Published systematic reviews and meta-analyses of any topical fluoride intervention for caries control were included. Relevant databases were searched (December 2009), along with reference lists of included publications. Thirty-eight reports were identified and assessed. A majority of these focused on the child/adolescent population, fluoride toothpastes, no treatment/placebo comparisons, and had caries increment as the main outcome. Complete reporting of eligibility criteria (PICOS) was uncommon, except in Cochrane reviews. Less than half reported searching multiple sources and only one third reported a search strategy. Duplicate study selection and data extraction was reported in 27 (71%) and 16 (42%) reviews, respectively; quality assessment of included studies was not reported in one third of the reviews. Meta-analysis was reported in 20 (52%) reviews, with six not reporting the methods of synthesis used, 17 formally assessing heterogeneity, and 12 reporting analyses for its exploration. This study shows that some content features have been covered more often than others in existing fluoride reviews, while some relevant features are yet to be addressed. Also, reporting of several methodological aspects are below an acceptable level, except for Cochrane reviews. Current reporting guidelines for systematic reviews of interventions (e.g. PRISMA) and sources of high-quality existing reviews (e.g. The Cochrane Library) should be closely followed to enhance the validity and relevance of future topical fluoride reviews.
142. Muller-Bolla M, Courson F, Dridi S, Viargues P. L’odontologie préventive au quotidien. Maladies carieuse et parodontales, malocclusions. Quintessence International. Paris: Quintessence International; 2013.
143. Chong LY, Clarkson JE, Dobbyn-Ross L, Bhakta S. Slow-release fluoride devices for the control of dental decay. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;11:CD005101.
We found no evidence comparing slow-release fluoride devices against other types of fluoride therapy.We found only one double-blind RCT involving 174 children comparing a slow-release fluoride device (glass beads with fluoride were attached to buccal surfaces of right maxillary first permanent molar teeth) against control (glass beads without fluoride were attached to buccal surfaces of right maxillary first permanent molar teeth). This study was assessed to be at high risk of bias. The study recruited children from seven schools in an area of deprivation that had low levels of fluoride in the water. The mean age at the beginning of the study was 8.8 years and at the termination was 10.9 years. DMFT in permanent teeth or dmft in primary teeth was greater than one at the start of the study and greater than one million colony-forming units of Streptococcus mutans per millilitre of saliva.Although 132 children were still included in the trial at the two-year completion point, examination and statistical analysis was performed on only the 63 children (31 in intervention group, 32 in control group) who had retained the beads (retention rate was 47.7% at two years). Among these 63 children, caries increment was reported to be statistically significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (DMFT: mean difference -0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.23 to -0.21; DMFS: mean difference -1.52, 95% CI -2.68 to -0.36 (very low quality evidence)). Although this difference was clinically significant, it only holds true for those children who maintain the fluoride beads; over 50% of children did not retain the beads.Harms were not reported within the trial report. Evidence for other outcomes sought in this review (progression to of caries lesion, dental pain, healthcare utilisation data) were also not reported.
There is insufficeint evidence to determine the caries-inhibiting effect of slow-release fluoride glass beads. The body of evidence available is of very low quality and there is a potential overestimation of benefit to the average child. The applicability of the findings to the wider population is unclear; the study had included children from a deprived area that had low levels of fluoride in drinking water, and were considered at high risk of carries. In addition, the evidence was only obtained from children who still had the bead attached at two years (48% of all available children); children who had lost their slow-release fluoride devices earlier might not have benefited as much from the devices.
144. Ellwood RP, Cury JA. How much toothpaste should a child under the age of 6 years use. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent Off J Eur Acad Paediatr Dent. sept 2009;10(3):168‑74.
Dental fluorosis is dependent on local fluoride levels in the extra cellular fluid surrounding the tooth during its development. These fluoride levels are determined by the plasma concentration that in turn is a function of the daily intake of fluoride. Fluoride released from bone during remodelling may also contribute to fluoride levels in the tissue. There is evidence to suggest that the effects of fluoride resulting in fluorosis prior to eruption of the tooth are cumulative and dependent on the amount and duration of exposure rather than a specific window of vulnerability. In contrast to dilution of ingested fluoride in the large volume of plasma, dilution of toothpaste in oral fluids is relatively small. Hence, for a given dose of fluoride, higher fluoride levels can be achieved in the oral environment using small amounts of toothpaste with higher fluoride concentrations rather than larger amounts with lower fluoride concentrations.
It is concluded that for young children fluoride ingestion needs to be carefully controlled during the first six years of life and the best balance between risk and efficacy might be achieved by using small amounts of high fluoride toothpaste under close supervision from parents.
145. Muller-Bolla M, Courson F. Toothbrushing methods to use in children: a systematic review. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2013;11(4):341‑7.
Six of 534 identified articles were included. Because the protocols differed, regrouping of data was not possible. The level of evidence was moderate due to imprecise methods. The horizontal technique was found to be the most effective up to 6 to 7 years of age. For older children, there was no statistical difference between the techniques. No randomised clinical trial assessed different frequencies of toothbrushing.
Based on current knowledge, it would appear prudent to propose that, at the stage of the late mixed dentition, the technique adopted by the child be modified to improve brushing quality without favouring a particular technique. In younger children, the horizontal technique should be advised. The recommendations published via the Internet by national and international associations should be reconsidered.